Networking Basics

A network is a collection of computers, printers, and other devices connected by cables. The exchange of information and resources. Information is transmitted via the cables, allowing network users to share documents and data, print to the same printers, and share any devices or software connected to the network. A node is a computer, printer, or other peripheral device that connects to the network. Tens of thousands, if not millions, of nodes can be found in a network.


Twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax are the two most used forms of network cable (also known as 10Base2). 10BaseT cable resembles regular telephone wiring, with the exception that it has eight wires inside instead of four. Thin coax resembles the copper coaxial cable used to connect a VCR to a television set.

Adapter for Networking:

A network interface card connects a network PC to the network cabling (also called a “NIC”, “nick”, or network adapter). A network card is inserted directly into one of the computer’s internal expansion slots when some NICs are placed inside a computer: the computer is opened up and a network card is plugged directly into one of the computer’s internal expansion slots. A 16-bit NIC is required since the 286, 386, and many 486 machines had 16-bit slots. Faster computers, such as 486s and Pentiums, are more likely to include 32-bit, or PCI, slots. To get the fastest networking rates feasible for speed-critical applications like desktop video, multimedia, publishing, and databases, these PCs require 32-bit NICs. A network adapter that supports 100Mbps data throughput is also required if a computer is to be utilized with a Fast Ethernet network.


A hub is the final component of the networking jigsaw. A hub is a box that uses 10BaseT cabling to connect a number of PCs in a central place. You might be able to get away with a hub, some 10BaseT cables, and a few network adapters if you’re networking a small number of machines together. A thin coax “backbone” connects a row of 10BaseT hubs together in larger networks. Each hub can link a small number of computers via 10BaseT cabling, allowing you to create networks with tens, hundreds, or thousands of nodes.
Hubs, like network cards, come in regular (10Mbps) and Fast Ethernet (100Mbps) configurations.

LANs are local area networks (Local Area Networks)

Any group of separate computers that communicate with one another across a shared network medium is referred to as a network. LANs are local area networks (LANs) that are normally limited to a certain geographical region, such as a single building or a college campus. LANs can be modest, connecting only three computers, but they frequently connect hundreds of machines that are utilized by thousands of people. The development of common networking protocols and media has resulted in the widespread use of LANs in businesses and educational institutions throughout the world.

WANs (Wide Area Networks) (Wide Area Networks)

A network is frequently spread across numerous physical locations. Wide area networking connects numerous LANs that are separated geographically. This is performed by leveraging services like specialized leased phone lines, dial-up phone lines (both synchronous and asynchronous), satellite links, and data packet carrier services to connect the many LANs. Wide area networking can be as basic as providing employees with a modem and remote access server, or it can be as sophisticated as connecting hundreds of branch offices across the world using specific routing protocols and filters to reduce the cost of transferring data over long distances.


The Internet is a global network of interconnected networks that provide data transmission services such as remote login, file transfer, electronic mail, access to the World Wide Web, and newsgroups.
The Internet has become a communications highway for millions of users as demand for access has skyrocketed. Initially confined to military and academic institutions, the Internet has evolved into a full-fledged conduit for all types of information and trade. Every part of the globe today has access to personal, educational, political, and economic resources via the internet.